In a worldwide comparison, Germany holds a unique position thanks to its publicly subsidized research communities outside the universities.
The application-oriented research communities, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and Leibniz-Gemeinschaft, provide mainly small and medium-sized companies with access to top research. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft invests EUR 2.1 billion of research money in its more than 69 facilities and over 24,500 employees. A major part of the funds is generated by contractual research in collaboration with the industry.
Leibniz-Gemeinschaft's network comprises 88institutes and almost 19,000 employees. ,Renowned institutes for fundamental research are located in Germany as well. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft enable companies to outsource costly fundamental research, thus reducing the risk associated with the development of new products and decreasing R&D expenditure.
The interaction of universities, research organizations, industrial research and other actors constitutes a division of labor in the creation of value-added new knowledge which is unique in the world. This differentiated performance of tasks by the institutes involved covers the entire range from pre-competitive fundamental research mostly supported by the public sector up to tradeable application research financed by the industry.Diagramm: R&D Expenditures and Type of Research by Actor | © Federal Statistical Office 2017
You can find this fragment in the following contexts: